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Fortran FAQ From: Keith Bierman QED Newsgroups:,, Subject: Fortran FAQ Followup-To: Date: 03 Jan 1997 14:14:22 -0800 Organization: SunSoft Sender: khb@chiba Expires: 1 March 1997 Message-ID: Archive-name: fortran-faq Frequency: mostly bi-monthly X-Newsreader: Gnus v5.2.25/XEmacs 19.14 Last-Modified: 97/01/03 Fortran FAQ Here are some answers to frequently asked questions. The 'author', as is the custom, has appropriated posted responses as seemed apt. I have tried to leave attributions in, as correctly as possible. To anyone who has been offended by omission or otherwise, my apologies. I shall give priority to corrections regarding attribution. No one takes responsibility for any of this text, neither the employer of the 'author', the 'author', friends of the 'author', pets of the 'author' nor anyone else.

Your mileage WILL vary. A good place to look for FAQ's is: host: rtfm.mit.edu directory: /pub/usenet If you have comments/suggestions/edit proposals please send them to me (). I do not promise to accept 'em. I encourage others to make better FAQ lists, so I can retire this one. Dvr Studio Pro 2 Keygen Software For Mac.

The structure of the current list has been modified from previous versions in an attempt to group related questions according to their topic, and to maintain consistency with the new order. Let the author know if any inconsistencies have been introduced by the revision. A more recent reorganization, and htmlization (which is what this ascii text is derived from) thanks to Abraham Agay.,;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,;;;;;; Numbering convention:;;;; ''''''''''';;;; l) General Category:;;;; l.m) Topic:;;;; l.m.n) Question:;;;;;; `;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;' SUMMARY OF CHANGES ================== C 1.2.4 Added C 2. Updated C + misc other updates (bad bookkeeping) 1.2.1 Updated;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; 1) GENERAL INTEREST: 1.1) The language and its development 1.1.0) How should one spell FORTRAN/Fortran? 1.1.1) Where can I learn more about the history of Fortran?

1.1.2) How does Fortran 90 relate to FORTRAN '77 and what is Fortran 90? 1.1.3) Is Fortran 90 a Standard? Where can I get a copy of the Fortran 90 Standard? How about electronic copies? (getting other standards) 1.1.4) Who creates these silly standards anyway? See also: 2.1.5) Tell me about Parallel Fortran dialects, what are they, etc. 1.2) Learning Fortran and its style 1.2.1) What are good books on Fortran?

1.2.2) Where can I find a f90 tutorial or course? 1.2.3) What constitutes good FORTRAN style? 1.2.4) What is a good subset of Fortran? 1.3) General Fortran (particularly Fortran 90) resources 1.3.1) f90.faq from Michel Olagnon 1.3.2) f90 'market' announcement from walt brainerd 2) TOOLS: 2.1) Compilers 2.1.1) Where can I get a free (FORTRAN 77) compiler? 2.1.2) What is the best (FORTRAN 77) compiler for a PC?

2.1.3) What is the best Fortran for. 2.1.4) What Fortran 90/95 compilers/translators are available? 2.1.5) Tell me about Parallel Fortran dialects, what are they, etc. See also: 2.2.6) What is preprocessing, how can it help? How can it hurt? 3.1.4) For whatever reasons, I want to translate my Fortran into C.

What tools are available? 2.2) Other tools (pretty printers, lints, converters, etc.) 2.2.1) I have heard of fortran 'lints'; what are they, and where can I get one? 2.2.2) Are there pretty printers for FORTRAN? Flowchart generators? 2.2.3) Is there a WEB for Fortran (and what is WEB anyway)? 2.2.4) Fortran text editors?

2.2.5) How can I convert an existing FORTRAN 77 program to the free form source of Fortran 90? 2.2.6) What is preprocessing, how can it help?

How can it hurt? 2.3) Fortran Packages and libraries 2.3.1) Where can I get 'foo' (some random package), older posts to etc 2.3.2) Where can I find coded BLAS (and what are coded BLAS?) 2.3.3) Where can I get mathematical software? 2.3.4) What Interval Arithmetic packages are avaliable? 2.3.5) FLIB announcement 3) TECHNICAL QUESTIONS: 3.1) Fortran and other languages (essentially C) 3.1.1) 'Why do people use FORTRAN? C is so much better' 3.1.2) Why are there aimless debates? 3.1.3) How do I call f77 from C (and visa versa) 3.1.4) For whatever reasons, I want to translate my Fortran into C. What tools are available?

3.1.5) For whatever reasons, I want to translate my existing C code into Fortran. What tools are available? 3.2) System differences 3.2.1) My compiler is mis-behaving; who enforces the standard? 3.2.2) My F77 program compiled ok on a, but gives me heaps of syntax errors on a.

What's wrong? 3.2.3) My F77 program ran ok on a, but on a it just gives me strange results. What's wrong? 3.2.4) How can I read my VAX binary data somewhere else? 3.3) Language extensions 3.3.1) How common is DO.

3.3.2) What are ENCODE and DECODE statements, and how are they translated to standard Fortran? How can I convert numbers to character strings (and vice-versa)? 3.4.1) What is involved in parsing Fortran? 4) WWW SOFTWARE/FORTRAN 4.1.1) WWW and Fortran Start of contents;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; 1.1) The language(s) and its(their) development 1.1.0) How should one spell FORTRAN/Fortran? FORTRAN is generally the preferred spelling for discussions of versions of the language prior to the current one ('90'). Fortran is the spelling chosen by X3J3 and WG5.

In this document a feeble effort has been made to capitalize accordingly (e.g. Vast existing software. Generic Fortran to mean all versions of the standard, and specifically the modern dialect, ISO 1539:1991).

--------------------------------------- ~From: (Walt Brainerd) --------------------------------------- There was an effort to 'standardize' on spelling of programming languages just after F77 became a standard. The rule: if you say the letters, it is all caps (APL); if you pronounce it as a word, it is not (Cobol, Fortran, Ada). See, for example the definitive article describing Fortran 77 in the Oct 1978 issue of the Comm. The timing was such that FORTRAN got put on the standard itself, though many always after that have referred to it as Fortran 77. Of course, there are those who think it is not truly Fortran if not written with all caps. ISO 1539:1991 and its ANSI counterpart X3.198-1992 consistently employ the spelling 'Fortran' to refer to the language being defined.

Reference(s) to the older version employ 'small caps' for the 'ORTRAN' characters. __________________________________________________________________________ 1.1.1) Where can I learn more about the history of Fortran? ------------------------------------------------- ~From: (Michael Metcalf ) ------------------------------------------------- The history of Fortran is documented in: Annals of History of Computing, 6, 1, January, 1984 (whole issue) Programming Systems and Languages (S. Rosen ed.), McGraw Hill, 1967, pp 29-47 (this is Backus's original paper) History of Prorammining Languages (R.L. Wexelblat ed.), Academic Press, 1981, pp 25-74 A summary appears in: Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, Academic Press, 1986, vol. 5, under 'Fortran' and in: Fortran 90 Explained (Oxford, 1990).

Chapter 1 of __________________________________________________________________________ 1.1.2) How does Fortran 90 relate to FORTRAN '77? With a few minor exceptions, Fortran 90 is a superset of X3.9-1978 FORTRAN. But this does not mean that all '77' codes will port sans changes. Many (if not most) programmers employed constructs beyond the '77 standard, or rely on unspecified behavior (say, assuming that an OPEN of an existing file will position the file pointer to just past the last record already written) which has changed (that is to say, has become specified).

This leads to the obvious question, what is new in Fortran 90? A complete answer would require considerable text. Some of the most obvious additions are: 1) array notation (operators, etc.) 2) dynamic memory allocation 3) derived types and operator overloading 4) keyword argument passing, INTENT (in, out, inout) 5) modules 6) modern control structures 7) free format source code form 8) other stuff While it is always tricky to characterize the motives of a large group of people, I am inclined to try as follows: '90 incorporates two sets of improvements: (1) relatively minor fixups that *could* have been done earlier (2) relatively major changes to enable better software engineering practices. Sometimes a 'minor' fixup has major effect, such as addition of free form source form combined with canonization of the MIL-STD 1753 INCLUDE. I further go off on a limb and assert that it was the goal of the *committee* to evolve Fortran in a fashion to enable it to continue to be the premier language for scientific computation. __________________________________________________________________________ 1.1.3) Is it a Standard? Where can I get a copy of the Fortran 90 Standard?

How about electronic copies? Fortran 90 was adopted as an International Standard by ISO in July, 1991.

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